Analysis of the Cryptographic Tools for Blockchain and Bitcoin

Víctor Gayoso Martínez, Luis Hernández-Álvarez and Luis Hernández Encinas
Mathematics 2020, 8(1), 131; 11 pp.

Blockchain is one of the most interesting emerging technologies nowadays, with applications ranging from cryptocurrencies to smart contracts. This paper presents a review of the cryptographic tools necessary to understand the fundamentals of this technology and the foundations of its security. Among other elements, hash functions, digital signatures, elliptic curves, and Merkle trees are reviewed in the scope of their usage as building blocks of this technology. Keywords: asymmetric cryptography; bitcoin; blockchain; digital signature; elliptic curves; hash function, merkle tree.